Strukturalne przemiany na Śląsku wywołane akcją kolonizacyjną na przykładzie biskupiego księstwa nyskiego

Winfried Schich, Joachim Stephan


In Silesia colonization with German law began in the 13th century and radically redesigned the structures of the country contributing significantly to demographic changes. This process can be observed particularly well in the duchy of Nysa (Neise), where the sources are outstandingly abundant. The starting point for the development of the country Neiße was the castellany Otmuchów (Ottmachau) where archaeological finds dated before the 13th century are concentrated north of the eponymous castle. A tax roll called Liber fundationis from around 1300 shows in this space a complex of about 40 small villages with Polish place names, whose inhabitants lived under Polish law and gave tithes by the Polish habit. In contrast, the areas situated above 250 meters above sea level are dominated by settlements in forest clearings with Waldhufen having almost exclusively German place names. Between these two clearly distinguishable zones the same source records over 60 villae Teutonicales that had obviously been inhabited not only by Germans. Th e mapping of archaeological remains, types of place names and further information provided by the written sources allow not only to seize more precisely the changes in economy, law and in the settlement pattern, but also the coexistence and cooperation between the Polish and German settlers in the process of colonization in the duchy of Nysa.

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